Wednesday, December 14, 2016

Progressive Librarian.
Progressive Librarian #42,  2014.
Kathleen de la Peña McCook-June, 2014

Librarians as Wikipedians: From Library History to “Librarianship and Human Rights”.

By Kathleen de la Peña McCook
Keywords: crowdsourcing; digital natives; Florida libraries; gender gap; human rights;  information-seeking behavior; information literacy; knowledge management; librarian biography;  librarians as Wikipedians; library education; library history; University of South Florida, School of Information; Wikipedia;

Wikipedia: Need for Librarians as Contributors
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia built collaboratively using wiki software, is the most visited reference site on the web.[1] Only 270 librarians identify as Wikipedians[2] of 21,431,799 Wikipedians with named accounts.[3]  This needs to change.  Understanding Wikipedia is essential to teaching information literacy and editing Wikipedia is essential to foster successful information-seeking behavior.  Librarians who become skilled Wikipedians will maintain the centrality of librarianship to knowledge management in the 21st century—especially through active participation in crowdsourcing.   Crowdsourcing is the online participation model that make use of the collective intelligence of online communities for specific purposes[4] in this case creating and editing articles for Wikipedia.
English edition of Wikipedia-number of articles.[5]
I began my career as a librarian in pre-digital times when the Guide to Reference Books was called Winchell. [6] As a young librarian I conscientiously reviewed new editions of reference resources and annotated my copy of Winchell until the next edition was released—a rather big event in the librarian calendars of the last century.  Since 2000 the Guide has only been published online.[7] Yet the special expertise of librarians honed by our deep understanding of the reference books annotated in Winchell (later Sheehy, then Balay, now Kieft) and honored in yearly reviews[8] may give us false confidence that our expertise is widely understood and appreciated.  In the 21st century these skills make little difference unless we connect them to the world’s largest and most used reference tool—Wikipedia.
Academic bias against Wikipedia was discussed in 2007 at Inside Higher Education as Middlebury college history professors banned its use, although the columnist points out that an analysis of the accuracy of Wikipedia for The Journal of American History found that in many entries, Wikipedia was as accurate or more accurate than more traditional encyclopedias. [9] Now seven years old, the 161 comments attached to the column illuminate librarian and faculty opinions heavily critical of Wikipedia as a source.
In a 2010 study of Wikipedia use in higher education Head and  Eisenberg point out: “Far more students, than not, used Wikipedia….Reasons for using Wikipedia were diverse: Wikipedia provided students with a summary about a topic, the meaning of related terms, and also got students started on their research and offered a usable interface.“[10] As our students are increasingly digital natives,[11] we can expect them to be more open to crowd sourced technologies like Wikipedia.

The Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education  developed by the  Association of College and Research Libraries is in the revision process at the time of this writing (May 2014). It defines information literacy:
 Information literacy combines a repertoire of abilities, practices, and dispositions
 focused on expanding one’s understanding of the information ecosystem, with the
 proficiencies of finding, using and analyzing information, scholarship, and data to
 answer questions, develop new ones, and create new knowledge, through ethical
 participation in communities of learning and scholarship. [12]
This definition of information literacy certainly provides a rationale for using Wikipedia, but The Framework indicates no strong recognition of the growing importance of Wikipedia as a source. This is a missed opportunity.  Again, Wikipedia is the most used reference resource in the world.


“Wikipedia and Knowledge Management:” the Courses

During 2013-2014 I developed a new course, “Wikipedia and Knowledge Management,” and reorganized two other courses, “History of Books and Libraries,” and “Librarians and Human Rights” with large portions of assignments to be done in Wikipedia. I decided that students could apply critical thinking skills to enhance articles in Wikipedia and at the same time work to increase the amount of information about libraries and librarianship at the site. Since my classes are 60 percent women  it also seemed to me that teaching more women to edit in Wikipedia would be a way I could help in a small way to  address the gender gap among Wikipedia editors.[13] I live by the question asked by Eleanor Roosevelt, ‘Where do human rights begin? In small places, close to home, so close and so small that they cannot be seen on any maps of the world. Such are the places where every man, woman, and child seeks equal justice, equal opportunity, equal dignity without discrimination.’ [14] A class is a good small place.

In this article I provide a summary of the work done by students enrolled in these classes at the University of South Florida, School of Information, a program accredited by the American Library Association.[15]  Students were extraordinarily creative and without limits as they went through tutorials and became proficient at editing.[16]  The outcome of the classes was that enrolled students are now creative contributors; skilled editors; and managers of content in Wikipedia. They are both librarians AND Wikipedians.

LIS Course: "Wikipedia and Knowledge Management."




A geographical, sociological and chronological overview of knowledge management beginning with the printed encyclopedia. 

How Wikipedia came about and how a virtual an army of volunteers crowd-sourced a user-built encyclopedia of over 4 million articles. 

Class activities will include editing, writing and organizing knowledge to be included in Wikipedia.[17]


To demonstrate the scope of work I provide examples from the three classes. These examples are intended to demonstrate the range of scholarship and creativity that graduate students accomplished as editors.  Clearly, these are examples of solid work on which others can build and expand. Crowdsourcing by librarians is a strategy for extending our contributions to knowledge and especially to topics relating to books and libraries.








Out of the gate one student added a new entry on The Librarian (Giuseppe Arcimboldo's painting).


Another student observed: “Wikipedia’s list of librarians was looking male dominated and Eurocentric so I added some notable female and international librarians. While I was glad to see that so many had Wikipedia pages, I thought it was important they be included in an overall view.” By including a few examples of this student’s work taken from the “history” tab of each page we can see how this was accomplished. (see endnote 17).[18]

For the human rights class a new entry was written for Clara Breed a librarian in San Diego, California, remembered chiefly for her support for Japanese American children during World War II. This entry was featured in the 2/28/14 DYK section[19] and had over 8,137 visits in between time of creation and March, 2014. It was one of the top visited pages in March 2014.  The user page of petercannon[20] is a resource to review this process. Additionally, here is a screen shot:



Below is a list of over 40 biographies added during the three classes. Those with a + symbol were new entries. Others were extant entries that were expanded and edited. Because Wikipedia is not in alphabetical order but is an openly searchable database I have listed biographies the way they appear on their Wikipedia pages. Some students included new images with their reports and a few examples are provided. Some wrote biographies of librarians whose careers had a focus on human rights. Some looked to the history of the discipline to add notable librarians and book people.



Caption: Helen Marot was a Progressive librarian and Labor Movement activist.



Ainsworth Rand Spofford
Alice S. Tyler 
Alois Senefelder.
Ana Rosa Núñez. 
Anne Jarvis.
+Beatrice Winser.
 Charles Ammi Cutter
+Clara Breed.
Clara Whitehill Hunt.
Caroline Hewins.
Eliza Atkins Gleason.
Eliza Farnham. 
+Emily Wheelock Reed.
+ Francis R. St. John.
+Fred C. Cole. 
Garth Williams.
Hâfiz Osman.
Hedwig Anuar.
+Helen Marot.
Henrietta M. Smith
James Logan.
+Jane Walker Burleson.
José Toribio Medina.
+Joseph Henry Reason 
+Josephus Nelson Larned.
Justin Winsor
+Juliette Hampton Morgan.
Li Dazhao.
Louise Noëlle Malclès.
+Maria Chavez-Hernandez.
+Maria Luisa Monteiro da Cunha.
Marianne Scott.
Melvil Dewey.
+Patricia Swift Blalock.
+Olinta Ariosa Morales.
+Randolph Greenfield Adams.
S. R. Ranganathan.
Sadie Peterson Delaney.
Samuel Gompers.
+Shen Zhurong. 
+Tony Pizzo.
Thomas Bray.
William Frederick Poole.
+Winarti Partaningrat.

100 of the Most Important 20th Century Leaders in the United States

And, as a tour de force, one student (already a well-established Wikipedian—the legendary Gamaliel)[21] decided to edit and update entries for librarians listed in American Libraries as "100 of the Most Important Leaders We Had in the 20th Century." [22]   He went through the list and looked for basic things to improve: categories, citations, redirects, dates of birth/death, etc. For most leaders listed below additions and edits were made to improve and enhance their entry.


Mary Eileen Ahern
Alexander Allain (intellectual freedom advocate)
May Hill Arbuthnot
Lester E. Asheim
Hugh Atkinson 
Augusta Baker
William J. Barrow 
Mildred Leona Batchelder
John Shaw Billings
William Warner Bishop
Henry Bliss
Sarah Bogle
Richard Rogers Bowker
William Howard Brett 
Pierce Butler
Andrew Carnegie (not a librarian)
Leon Carnovsky
Verner Warren Clapp 
David Horace Clift
Fred C. Cole 
George Watson Cole
Robert B. Croneberger 
Arthur Curley
John Cotton Dana
Sadie Peterson Delaney 
Melvil Dewey 
William S. Dix
Robert B. Downs
Paul Dunkin
Linda Eastman
Margaret A. Edwards 
Charles Evans
Luther Evans
Virginia Proctor Powell Florence 
Henry Clay Folger (book collector)
Herman H. Fussler
Loleta Fyan 
Mary Gaver
Rudolph H. Gjelsness
Fred Glazer
Margaret Hayes Grazier
Emerson Greenaway
James Christian Meinich Hanson
Adelaide R. Hasse
Frances E. Henne 
Caroline M. Hewins
Carleton B. Joeckel 
Virginia Lacy Jones 
Frederick Paul Keppel (Carnegie Foundation)
Harry Miller Lydenberg
Stephen McCarthy
Archibald MacLeish 
Margaret Mann
Charles Martel
Allie Beth Martin
Frederic G. Melcher (bookman)
Keyes D. Metcalf 
Carl H. Milam
Sydney B. Mitchell
William Andrew Moffett
Foster E. Mohrhardt
Anne Carroll Moore
Bessie Boehm Moore (trustee leader)
Everett T. Moore
Isabel Gilbert Mudge
L. 0uincy Mumford
Ralph Munn
Margaret Norton
Paul Peter Evans
Effie Louise Power
Herbert Putnam
Joseph Henry Reason
Ernest C. Richardson
Arthur Fremont Rider
Frank Bradway Rogers
Charlemae Rollins
Francis R. St. John
Frances Clarke Sayers
Marvin Scilken
Margaret C. Scoggin 
Minnie Earl Sears 
Katharine Sharp
Ralph Shaw
Jesse H. Shera 
Louis Shores
Frances Lander Spain
Forrest Spaulding
Mortimer Taube
Maurice Tauber
Ralph Ulveling
George Burwell Utley
Robert G. Vosper
Douglas Waples
Joseph L. Wheeler
Edward C. Williams
Charles C. Williamson
Halsey William Wilson
Louis Round Wilson 
Constance M. Winchell 
Donald Goddard Wing[23]






To get an idea of the kinds of changes made to these entries by Gamaliel  a few examples are provided in the endnotes.[24]
Library Associations

Library associations are not well represented in Wikipedia and adding and editing them could be a major focus for librarians who become Wikipedians.[25] So much work to support intellectual freedom and outreach takes place in librarian associations that is documented haphazardly on websites of various degrees of currency. There is much support for students by hundreds of librarians in their associations raising funds for scholarships or awards that encourage research: The Progressive Librarian Guild’s Braverman Award, for example.[26]  Having Wikipedia entries for library associations enhances the visibility of library and information work. Students added new entries and expanded extant ones. The list of library associations on which class members worked to update links is a starting point for additional article creation and editing. [27]
American Association of Law Libraries.
+Association of Caribbean University, Research and Institutional Libraries.
Association of Research Libraries.
Bibliographical Society of America. 
+Florida Library Association.
+Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender Round Table. (American Library Association).
Library Association of Ireland.
Southeastern Library Association.
+Tampa Bay Library Consortium.
+Virginia Library Association. 
Young Adult Library Services Association.

Library Updates or New Entries (+) United States.
Another group of entries on which students worked were devoted to a variety of U.S. libraries and related topics. Once again those proceeded by a + were new to Wikipedia. Other topics were expanded.
The classes felt that general library information was lacking for many locations and students were especially conscientious adding photographs, location data and history for many libraries. Wikipedia entries on Florida counties were inconsistent in the inclusion of library system information.  Student Dgiguere89 did as stunning amount of work adding library information to county entries. A few examples indicate the scope of her work.[28] Though Florida libraries were the majority of the entries, some in other states were included. 


Caption: African-American Research Library and Cultural Center, Broward County



Anton Brees Carillon Library. (FL)
+Auburn Avenue Research Library on African American Culture and History. (GA)
Boca Raton Public Library. (FL) 
*Bradenton Carnegie Library. (FL)
Carnegie library.
Broward County.  African-American Research Library and Cultural Center.  (FL)
+Diaz Ayala Cuban and Latin American Popular Music Collection (DAC) at Florida International University Libraries.
Digital Public Library of America.
Fred W. Smith National Library for the Study of George Washington. (Virginia)
Grace Church Complex (Massapequa, New York). DeLancey Floyd-Jones Free Library.
Hernando County Library System. FL.
+Howard-Tilton Memorial Library. (Tulane University, New Orleans)  
+James Weldon Johnson Community Library, a historic African American library in St. Petersburg, Florida.
John and Mable Ringling Museum of Art. Sarasota, Florida.Library.
+John F. Germany Public Library. (Tampa, FL) 
Library of Virginia.
Louisville Free Public Library, Western Colored Branch.
+Manatee County Historical Records Library.(FL)
Miami-Dade Public Library System.
Mirror Lake Library. (FL)
National Book Festival.
National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped.
New York Society Library.
+New Port Richey Public Library (FL).
Pasco County Library Cooperative. (FL)
Palm Beach County Library System. (FL)

Public Library of Cincinnati and Hamilton County.
Ocala Carnegie Library.(FL) 
Pennsylvania State Archives.
Pinellas County. Libraries. (FL)
Polk County Historical & Genealogical Library. Old Bartow Courthouse. (FL)
St. Johns County, FL.
Tampa Free Library.
Virginia Beach Public Library System




Libraries- Outside of United States.
A great deal of work was done adding information to national library entries. However, one class member, Brooksky, who tried to add information about the National Library of Pakistan was unable to do so. The individual watching the site—“ Smsarmad” used the ruse of copyright violation to delete information that was added. Having reviewed the work I know it was not copied and was information that had been documented with notes from secondary sources. When Brooksky met Smsarmad’s demands the changes were still deleted. Inexplicably the higher authority agreed that the sources should be deleted. I could only surmise that individuals who become conversant in the Wikipedia community on certain topic have created levels of authority that can overturn well intentioned and accurate information  on rare occasions. To overturn this would take much more editing  focus than was available to this class. We did not have difficulties with any other national library. It is likely best to be aware that this sort of activity can go on, can be discouraging, but is not typical. It would be a leap to suggest that there is a cultural bias against women editing the National Library of Pakistan site, but it could be an aspect of the  “Malala effect.” [29] Interested readers may want to review the “Talk” pages for this library  to see how issues might be contested. [30]
Listed below are national library entries that were edited by students in the classes.


·        Albania
·         Algeria
·         Angola
·         Azerbaijan
·         Belarus
·         Botswana
·         Brazil
·         Burkina Faso
·         Burundi
·         Cambodia
·         Cape Verde
·         Costa Rica
·         Democratic Republic of Congo
·         Ethiopia
·         Germany
·         Iran
·         Norway
·         Portugal
·        South Africa
·        Turkey
·        Ukraine
·        Uruguay.



Caption: Dresden Codes. A pre-Columbian Maya book of the eleventh or twelfth century of the Yucatecan Maya in Chichén Itzá. This Maya codex is believed to be a copy of an original text of some three or four hundred years earlier. It is the oldest book written in the Americas known to historians.

A few additional non-U.S. entries demonstrate the range of library and manuscript entries that can be were edited or created by students in the classes.
List of libraries in the ancient world.
Extensive update to this list. See edits in “history” for “List of libraries in the ancient world” by Williamth.[31] He reorganized the contents (Regions),  included libraries that were not previously on the list. He added information and  citations. Note especially additions to Anatolia, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Syria.
Cotton library.
Dresden Codex.
+Gazi Husrev-beg Library.
Herzog August Library.
Library of Ashurbanipal.
Library of Celsus.
Vernadsky National Library of Ukraine.




Human Rights and Librarianship
Human rights topics or libraries with a focus on human rights such as the Auburn Avenue Research Library on African American Culture and History were added. Librarians with a notable commitment to human rights are listed in the biographical section intermingled with all biographical contributions, for who can not say that all library work contributes to human development?
The strongest work done in the class on behalf of human rights was a 3 person collaboration that extensively revised the Wikipedia entry, “Librarianship and human rights in the United States.”[32]  The article now opens with this powerful statement:
“Librarians, both individually and collectively, have a long history of engagement with human rights issues as they pertain to libraries and the communities they serve: against censorship and discrimination; and in support of the rights of immigrants, cultural minorities, poor people, the homeless and unemployed, people with disabilities, children and young adults, the LGBT community, older adults, those who are illiterate, and the imprisoned. Librarians also protect human rights by developing diverse collections, programs and services; promoting literacy; and preserving cultural and historical records.”[33]



Listed below are human rights Wikipedia entries created or edited addressed by students in the class.
Caption: Book burning in Chile following the 1973 coup that installed the Pinochet regime in Chile.








Abu Ghraib torture and prisoner abuse.
+Auburn Avenue Research Library on African American Culture and History. (GA)
Bibliotherapy.
Book burning.
Broward County.  African-American Research Library and Cultural Center.  (FL)
Effect of Hurricane Katrina on Tulane University (added information on damage to library).
Equality Florida.
Florida Literacy Coalition, Inc.
Freedom Summer.
Human Rights Watch.
Individuals and groups assisting Jews during the Holocaust.
Intellectual freedom.
Lesbian and Gay Equality Project. 
Librarians Without Borders.
Librarianship and human rights in the United States.
+Literacy Coalition of Palm Beach County.
National Center for Lesbian Rights.
National Coalition Against Censorship.
Prison Library.
Progressive Librarians Guild.
Tampa International Gay and Lesbian Film Festival.
UN Women.
Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
World Health Organization.
Women's suffrage in the United States.
Victory for the Slain (anti-war poem).












Other Editing Examples
The classes were expansive and a number of interesting edits on library or book-related topics were also submitted as weekly assignments. Some of these are listed below.
Caption: Oscar Hijuelos, appears at Miami Book Fair International, 1993.



As We May Think 
Ask a Librarian.
Bibliomania.
Blanket order.
Bok Tower Gardens.
Book curse.
Bookmobile.
Bookselling.
Bookworm
Carilda Oliver Labra.
Chapbook.
Digital rights management.
Education for librarianship.
Faceted classification.
Florida Cracker Storytelling Festival.
Friends of Libraries.
The Library (book) by Andrew Lang.
Miami Book Fair International.
Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting.
Papyrus. 
+The Philobiblon







A few examples of student comments at the end of the course indicate the kind of reception this class received:
·        I plan to continue editing and creating articles for Wikipedia and part of that plan will carry over to whatever place of employment I have after graduation. I've put my wiki editing skills on my CV and it's in my portfolio of things I've worked on or created during my time in grad school. I think that integrating special collections holdings into Wikipedia is something that we, as archivists, should consider

·        As I began to learn about Wikipedia, I realized its importance, not only from a conceptual standpoint but also as a source of knowledge. Whether or not academia frowns on it, people use Wikipedia. For most of the population, who cannot afford subscription databases nor have the necessary research skills, it is a primary access point. This resulted in me questioning my role as a librarian. After all, isn’t it my responsibility to ensure that all people have access to the same quality of information? Beginning the editing process was not easy, the syntax was confusing, there was little instructional material and it was difficult to find a community. Without this class, I’m not sure that I would have stayed with it. However, as I kept working on Wikipedia, I began to respect it in a way that I didn’t expect. The internal process of quality control, the sheer amount of time and energy spent by volunteers and the quality of research were actually quite amazing.

·        I see Wikipedia as an integral part of the web, people trust Wikipedia, they use Wikipedia and no matter what problems it may run into I do not think that it is going to change. I know that I will continue to edit Wikipedia

·        This class was simply amazing. Through intense discussion of the social history of knowledge management, the class learned a great deal about how history, politics, culture and other external factors directly impact the methods of knowledge production and maintenance. The sections we covered on Wikipedia were informative and helpful. Conducting weekly edits helped us as students to get in and really see what Wikipedia does, how it is done, and how it can impact those who frequently use this internet website. The information that I have learned from this class will be of great use to me in the future, and I have every plan to continue on as an editor for Wikipedia in the years to come. The importance of accurate information from an encyclopedia cannot be stressed enough, and with a resource like Wikipedia, librarians should be helping to create better information source through our knowledge of research, proper citation and neutrality of topics.

The point of this rather extensive review of work done in the three classes I taught in 2013-2014 is to offer a challenge to teachers of librarians and to librarians as information literacy instructors. The challenge is that they engage in editing in Wikipedia—the world’s most used reference source.
If not us, who?

The Future of Librarianship and Wikipedia


Cultural organizations have begun to hire Wikipedians. The National Library of Scotland hired a full-time Wikipedian in 2013 whose duties involve using the library's collections to update the online user-led encyclopaedia and teaching staff and the public how to add to the site.[34] The Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library, at the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, was the first presidential library in the United States to have a “Wikipedian in residence” on its staff. Michael Barera, a master’s student at Michigan’s School of Information, was charged with increasing and enhancing the library’s presence on Wikipedia in 2013.[35]  The University of California Berkeley  American Cultures program has hired Kevin Gorman as the first Wikipedian-in-Residence at a U.S. university.[36] Houghton Library at Harvard is seeking a Wikipedian to help make its collections as accessible as possible.[37]  
Wikipedia is increasingly a topic of academic study. For example Fullerton and Ettema’s analysis of “talk pages” in which discussions of article creation are recorded [38]  or Joorabchi and  Mahdi’s study of automatic subject indexing of library records with Wikipedia concepts. [39]  For me a very true, smart and pragmatic approach to using Wikipedia in teaching information literacy was detailed by Cate Calhoun in College and Research Library News:
 Wikipedia can act as a bridge to help them [undergraduates] become familiar with library resources and a new way to research they may have never learned in high school. Wikipedia continues to increase in popularity, and it is likely that students will continue to use it. Scholars, educators, and librarians should not shun it, but rather embrace it and make it work within a structure of information literacy while furthering students’ education.[40]
There are indicators that the convergence of the work of  Librarian and Wikipedian is gaining more traction. Brian Kelly, Innovation Advocate at Cetis, the Centre for Educational Technology, Interoperability and Standards based at the University of Bolton, has given a number of talks on Wikipedia and summarized developments in use of Wikipedia in higher education at the EduWiki Serbia conference held in Belgrade in March 2014. He has supported Wikipedia training events and edit-a-thons including session at the LILAC 2014 information literacy conference.[41]
There are initiatives in the Wikipedia community to expand librarian involvement. “Wikipedia Loves Libraries” is a general initiative for improved Wikimedia engagement with libraries (and archives), and more concretely an annual campaign of wiki-workshops and edit-a-thons at libraries around Open Access Week in October/November.[42] Events for each year can be viewed at the Wikipedia Loves Libraries Portal. [43]

Wikipedia is a democratic crowd sourced reference tool that needs a more inclusive cadre of editors—more women (only about 12% of contributors are women)  and more people from diverse backgrounds.[44] Managing knowledge, preserving knowledge, and sharing knowledge is central to the work of a librarian. Wikipedia as a resource is covered by the first point in the Library Bill of Rights: “Books and other library resources should be provided for the interest, information, and enlightenment of all people of the community the library serves. Materials should not be excluded because of the origin, background, or views of those contributing to their creation.” [45] And use of Wikipedia is also covered by the Code of Ethics of the American Library Association:   “We provide the highest level of service to all library users through appropriate and usefully organized resources; equitable service policies; equitable access; and accurate, unbiased, and courteous responses to all requests.”[46] 

Given that mastery of Wikipedia is simply an extension of the librarian’s skill set from scrolls, to codices, to digital collections, isn’t it time that the page “Wikipedian Librarians”[47] adds thousands of us?










[1] Alexa. http://www.alexa.com/ accessed May 20, 2014;  List of most popular websites. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_most_popular_websites accessed May 25, 2014.

[2] Wikipedian Librarians. Accessed May 19, 2014.  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Wikipedian_librarians

[3] Wikipedians.  (dynamically updated with the magic word: NUMBEROFUSERS). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Wikipedians


[4] Brabham, Daren C. 2013. Crowdsourcing. The MIT Press, 2013.

[5] History of Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Wikipedia#cite_note-Grand20-1 . Accessed May 23, 2014. See also List of Wikipedias. https://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/List_of_Wikipedias#Grand_Total . Accessed May 23, 2014.

[6] “History of the Guide to Reference.” Accessed May 15, 2014. http://www.guidetoreference.org/DynamicContent.aspx?ctype=15

[7] Robert H. Kieft, "When Reference Works Are Not Books: The New Edition of the Guide to Reference Books," RUSQ 41, no. 4 (2002): 330–34.

[8] Gregory, Patricia, "Outstanding Reference Sources." Reference & User Services Quarterly 52, no. 4: 342.

[9] Scott Jaschik, 2007. “A Stand against Wikipedia,” Inside Higher Ed (January 26, 2007) http://www.insidehighered.com/news/2007/01/26/wiki Accessed May 22, 2014.  

[10] Alison J. Head and Michael B. Eisenberg, “How today’s college students use Wikipedia for course-related research.” First Monday v. 15 March 2010. http://firstmonday.org/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/2830

[11] Emanuel, J. (2013). Digital Native Librarians, Technology Skills, and Their Relationship with Technology. Information Technology & Libraries, 32(3), 20-33.

[12] First part of the draft Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education as linked from the Association of College and Research Libraries Framework for Information literacy for Higher education. Accessed May 20, 2014. http://acrl.ala.org/ilstandards/

[13] Adeline Koh. “Join the Global Women Write In #GWWI on Wikipedia Tomorrow!” The Chronicle of Higher Education. March 17, 2014. http://chronicle.com/blogs/profhacker/join-the-global-women-write-in-gwwi-on-wikipedia-tomorrow/56149  Accessed May 27, 2014; Ed Yong, “ Edit-a-thon gets women scientists into Wikipedia:
Royal Society hosts event to redress online encyclopaedia's gender imbalance.” Nature October 22, 2012. http://www.nature.com/news/edit-a-thon-gets-women-scientists-into-wikipedia-1.11636 Accessed May 27, 2014.



[14] Roosevelt, Eleanor, and Allida Mae Black. 2010. The Eleanor Roosevelt Papers. The human rights years, 1945-1948. Charlottesville (Va.): University of Virginia Press.

[15] University of South Florida, School of Information.  http://si.usf.edu/  Accessed May 25, 2014.

[16] Editing Tutorial http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Tutorial. Accessed May 25, 2014/
Wikipedia: Starting an article http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/How_to_add_new_article Accessed May 25, 2014.

[17] Kathleen de la Peña McCook. Course description for “Wikipedia and Knowledge Management” taught Fall semester, 2013 at University of South Florida, School of Information. http://si.usf.edu/ Accessed May 27, 2014.

[18] The history tab allows readers to view the editors of the article and the changes that have been made.
Listed here are a few of the changes made to include women and librarians from a more diverse set of backgrounds to the “list of librarians.”
User:Mcgowanlianna https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:Mcgowanlianna Accessed May 26, 2014.
18:04, 6 November 2013 (diff | hist) . . (+50)‎ . . List of librarians ‎ (Margaret Scoggin) (current)
18:01, 6 November 2013 (diff | hist) . . (+27)‎ . . List of librarians ‎ (Frances Clarke Sayers)
17:54, 6 November 2013 (diff | hist) . . (+24)‎ . . List of librarians ‎ (Effie Louise Power)
17:53, 6 November 2013 (diff | hist) . . (+25)‎ . . List of librarians ‎ (Mary Wright Plummer)
17:49, 6 November 2013 (diff | hist) . . (+23)‎ . . List of librarians ‎ (Allie Beth Martin)
17:48, 6 November 2013 (diff | hist) . . (+92)‎ . . List of librarians ‎ (Virginia Lacy Jones)
17:40, 6 November 2013 (diff | hist) . . (+21)‎ . . List of librarians ‎ (Helen Haines)
17:39, 6 November 2013 (diff | hist) . . (+25)‎ . . List of librarians ‎ (Mary Virginia Gaver)
17:37, 6 November 2013 (diff | hist) . . (+89)‎ . . List of librarians ‎ (El Sayed Mahmoud El Sheniti)
17:33, 6 November 2013 (diff | hist) . . (+23)‎ . . List of librarians ‎ (Theresa Elmendorf)
17:31, 6 November 2013 (diff | hist) . . (+30)‎ . . List of librarians ‎ (Karl Dziatzko)
17:23, 6 November 2013 (diff | hist) . . (+55)‎ . . List of librarians ‎ (Shen Zhurong)
17:21, 6 November 2013 (diff | hist) . . (+26)‎ . . List of librarians ‎ (Eliza Atkins Gleason)

[19]  Category: Passed DYK nominations from February 2014.

[20] User:Petercannon https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:Petercannon_usf Accessed May 26, 2014.

[21] User:Gamaliel http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:Gamaliel Accessed May 23, 2014.

[22] 100 of the most important leaders we had in the 20th century. (1999). American Libraries, 30(11), 38.

[23] 100 of the most important leaders we had in the 20th century. (1999). American Libraries, 30(11), 38.
[24] User:Gamaliel http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:Gamaliel Accessed May 27, 2014.
The history tab allows readers to view the editors of the article and the changes that have been made.
Listed here are a few of the changes made from the list of 100 library leaders of the 20th century.
 (del/undel) 13:49, 26 September 2013 (diff | hist) . . (+201)‎ . . Frederick Paul Keppel ‎ (corrected dob/d, added to intro with citation)
Carleton Joeckel ‎ (←Redirected page to Carleton B. Joeckel) (current)
 (del/undel) 15:49, 23 September 2013 (diff | hist) . . (+16)‎ . . Herman H. Fussler ‎ (corrected and cited dob in intro) (current) [rollback: 3 edits]
(del/undel) 14:16, 23 September 2013 (diff | hist) . . (+4)‎ . . m Linda Eastman ‎ (→‎Early life and career) (current) [rollback: 3 edits] (Tag: VisualEditor)
 (del/undel) 13:44, 23 September 2013 (diff | hist) . . (+85)‎ . . Leon Carnovsky ‎ (+Category:University of Missouri alumni; +Category:University of Chicago alumni using HotCat) (current) [rollback: 2 edits]
 (del/undel) 13:08, 23 September 2013 (diff | hist) . . (+44)‎ . . Augusta Braxton Baker ‎ (added Category:New York Public Library people using HotCat) (current) [rollback: 2 edits]
(del/undel) 19:28, 1 October 2013 (diff | hist) . . (+101)‎ . . Bessie Boehm Moore ‎ (→‎Early life and education:  Arkansas State Teachers College)
(del/undel) 17:53, 30 September 2013 (diff | hist) . . (+31)‎ . . N Allie Martin ‎ (←Redirected page to Allie Beth Martin) (current)
(del/undel) 17:48, 7 October 2013 (diff | hist) . . (+167)‎ . . Marvin H. Scilken ‎ (+Category:People from the Bronx; +Category:Bronx High School of Science; +Category:University of Colorado at Boulder alumni; +Category:Pratt Institute alumni using HotCat)

[25] Look for example at “List of Library Associations specific to American states” Only 15 state library associations have Wikipedia entries as of May 27, 2014. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Library_Associations_specific_to_American_states Accessed May 27, 2014

[26] Miriam Braverman Memorial Prize. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Miriam_Braverman_Memorial_Prize Accessed May 27, 2014.

[27] List of library associations.  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_library_associations Accessed May 27, 2014.
18:23, 31 October 2013 (diff | hist) . . (+1,170)‎ . . Hamilton County, Florida ‎ (added information about the library)
18:12, 31 October 2013 (diff | hist) . . (+425)‎ . . Taylor County, Florida ‎ (added information about the library) (current)
18:10, 31 October 2013 (diff | hist) . . (+400)‎ . . Gilchrist County, Florida ‎ (added information about the library) (current)
18:08, 31 October 2013 (diff | hist) . . (+428)‎ . . Lafayette County, Florida ‎ (added information about the library) (current)
18:05, 31 October 2013 (diff | hist) . . (+243)‎ . . Dixie County, Florida ‎ (added information about the regional library system) (current)


[29] Yousafzai, Malala, and Christina Lamb. 2013. I am Malala: the girl who stood up for education and was shot by the Taliban. Little, Brown, & Company, 2013. See also “Because I am a Girl—the Malala Effect.”  http://becauseiamagirl.ca/the-malala-effect# Accessed May 29, 2014.

[30] Talk:National Library of Pakistan. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Talk:National_Library_of_Pakistan. Accessed May 26, 2014.

[31] List of libraries in the ancient world. See “history tab” and extenstive edits in March 20`13 by Williamth. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_libraries_in_the_ancient_world  Accessed May 31, 2014.

[32] Librarianship and human rights in the United States. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Librarianship_and_human_rights_in_the_United_States. See article history for dates in spring 2014.

[33] Librarianship and human rights in the United States. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Librarianship_and_human_rights_in_the_United_States. Accessed May 26, 2014.

[34]  For a report from Ally Crockford see “ A month as Wikimedian in Residence at the National Library of Scotland” at Wikimedia UK Blog “National Library of Scotland recruits 'Wikipedian'.” https://blog.wikimedia.org.uk/2013/08/a-month-as-wikimedian-in-residence-at-the-national-library-of-scotland/ .August 16, 2013. Accessed May 27, 2014.  BBC News. http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-scotland-22264118  April 23, 2013. Accessed May 27, 2014.

[35] “Michigan Student Is First ‘Wikipedian in Residence’ at a Presidential Library.” The Chronicle of Higher Education.  June 17, 2013. http://chronicle.com/blogs/wiredcampus/michigan-student-is-first-wikipedian-in-residence-at-a-presidential-library/41681 Accessed May 27, 2014.

[36] Ian Chant. “Kevin Gorman: Berkeley’s Wikipedian-in-Residence” Library Journal March 12, 2014. http://lj.libraryjournal.com/2014/03/copyright/kevin-gorman-berkeleys-wikipedian-in-residence/#_ Accessed May
27, 2014.

[37] Garber, Megan. “Harvard's Looking for a 'Wikipedian in Residence'.” The Atlantic March 12, 2014. http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2014/03/harvards-looking-for-a-wikipedian-in-residence/284373/ Accessed May 27, 2014.

[38] Fullerton, Lindsay, and James Ettema. "Ways of worldmaking in Wikipedia: reality, legitimacy and collaborative knowledge making." Media, Culture & Society 36, no. 2 (March 2014): 183-199.

[39] Joorabchi, Arash, and Abdulhussain E. Mahdi. 2014. "Towards linking libraries and Wikipedia: automatic subject indexing of library records with Wikipedia concepts." Journal of Information Science 40, no. 2: 211-221.

[40] Calhoun, Cate “Using Wikipedia in information literacy instruction.” College and Research Library News. 75 (January 2014). http://crln.acrl.org/content/75/1/32.full Accessed May 27, 2014.

[41] Brian Kelly, “Editing Wikipedia: Why You Should and How You Can Support Your Users” program presented at the CILIP Cymru Wales Library and Information Conference 2014 - “Making a difference: libraries and their communities.” http://ukwebfocus.wordpress.com/events/cilip-wales-2014-editing-wikipedia/ Accessed May  .

[42] Wikipedia: Wikipedia Loves Libraries. https://outreach.wikimedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia_Loves_Libraries, Accessed May 27, 2014.

[43] Wikipedia Loves Libraries. Port6al. https://outreach.wikimedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia_Loves_Libraries. , Accessed May 27, 2014.

[44] Gender gap . http://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/Gender_gap. Accessed May 27, 2014.
[45]Library Bill of Rights.   http://www.ifmanual.org/lbor.  Accessed May 27, 2014. 
[46] Code of Ethics of the American Library Association. http://www.ifmanual.org/codeethics.   Accessed May 27, 2014.

[47] Wikipedian Librarians. Accessed May 27, 2014.  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Wikipedian_librarians

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